Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Cardiovascular Disease Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Cardiovascular Disease - Essay Example According to Kantrowitz and Wingert (2006), a few years back, heart diseases were considered to be the concern of men alone, and women, especially those below 50years did not have to worry about cardiovascular diseases. However, recent studies have demonstrated that both men and women, especially women after menopause and men after 55years of age are a greater risk of cardiovascular accidents (Kantrowitz and Wingert, 2006). It is estimated that 50-70 million Americans have cardiovascular problems and according to Noonan (2005), cardiovascular events was responsible for the deaths of 260,000 American men in year 2000 alone. It is therefore regarded as the nation's no 1 killer (Underwood, 2005). Many risk factors are associated with cardiovascular disease; most can be managed, but some cannot. The aging process and hereditary predisposition are risk factors that cannot be altered. Until age 50 men are at greater risk than women of developing heart disease, though once a woman enters menopause, her risk triples (Kannel, 1997). According to the American Heart Association (AHA), increasing age is a major risk of cardiovascular diseases; they report that over 83% of people who die of heart problems are 65 or older. Mae gender and genetic predisposition are two other risk factors that cannot be altered. ... disease includes specific therapy for any underlying causes and may include Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (e.g., captopril, enalapril, lisinopril), beta-blockers (e.g., propranolol), blood thinners (e.g., aspirin, warfarin), the combination of hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate, digitalis, nitroglycerin, and diuretics. Also, surgical procedures such as angioplasty, bypass surgery, valve replacement, pacemaker installation, and heart transplantation, are common treatment options (Gluckman et al, 2004). According to Underwood (2005), Mounting evidences point to the fact that chronic emotional states such as stress, anxiety, hostility, depression or childhood trauma and loneliness play very important roles in the cause of cardiovascular diseases. These factors are appearing to be as potent or even stronger than the conventionally established cardiovascular risks, such as smoking, diabetes etc. It is believed that emotional states affect behavior. For instance, depressed, angry people are less likely to stick with diet and exercise regimens and are more likely to smoke. In one study, the most hostile subjects consumed 600 more daily calories than the least hostile. Also, such negative emotions can have direct effects, too, by provoking the stress response of the classic fight-or-flight mechanism. The body releases stress hormones, such as cortisol and epinephrine (adrenaline). In response, blood pressure and blood-glucose levels increase, while chemical changes in the blood enhance th e clotting reaction to help heal wounds. In the short term, these are survival mechanisms. But over the long haul, chronic high blood pressure and elevated glucose damage blood vessels (Underwood, 2005). High blood cholesterol is also one of the major predisposing factors

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